1. Public International Law
This law deals with the rules that govern the activities of the persons of international law, such as States and international organizations (eg. United Nations), and regulate the international relations among them. Countries mutually recognize these rules as binding upon them in their relations on the basis of reciprocity.
2. Constitutional Law:
Constitutional law is the basic and supreme law of the country. It determines basically the form of the state, political regime, authorities of State, organs of government, powers of these authorities and organs and their mutual relationships, and the fundamental human rights and freedoms. It is noteworthy that constitution may be written such as the case in Iraq, or unwritten such as the case in the United Kingdom.
3. Administrative Law:
Administrative law mainly governs the powers and functions of administrative organs, governmental departments, affairs of public function, rights and duties and discipline of public employees, and relationship between the administrative institutions and individuals.
4. Criminal Law:
Criminal law generally determines the criminal liability, since it forbids acts that consist rimes and specifies the punishment for each crime. Criminal law is very important for maintaining the public order and security of the society, because the crimes target not only the individual but the society as whole. In Iraq, the basic criminal law is the Penal Law No. (111) of 1969.
5. Financial Law:
This law deals with all the financial aspects of States activity. The most important topic of this law is the "budget" and its divisions which are "revenue" and "expenditure".
6. Civil Law:
In its wider sense, civil law is "the body of rules which governs the private relationships or transactions between two or more of persons who are subject to this law, and defines rights and duties of the persons and their civil legal liability.
Many topics are listed under this law such as contracts of sales; buy; rent; mortgage; loan and debt, and ownership of movable and immovable estates; funds and other properties. Civil law, as well, deals with wrongful acts or an infringement of rights of the other persons.
Commercial Law: It includes rules which regulate activities of trade, commercial companies, commercial contract and papers and the legal relationships between merchants.
Civil and Commercial Procedure Law: It is the body of rules which organizes and determines proceedings which should be followed when a suit or case is considered before the courts, and determines methods and means of evidence, and regulates execution of the judgments and decisions of civil courts by the law of execution.
In Iraq, matters of procedures are governed by the Law of Civil Procedure No. (83) of (1969), Law of Evidence No. (107) of (1979), Law of Execution No. (45) of (1980).
7. Law of Personal Status (Family Law): This law is related to the relationships within the members of family, since it deals with the matters of marriage, divorce, inheritance, will, guardianship, alimony and others. In such matters, people are mostly governed by the personal laws to which its rules are derived from their religions and holy rituals. For example, in the Islamic countries the most legal rules of personal status come from the Islamic Sharia. While for the Hindus, their marriage is governed by personal laws derived from the Hindu beliefs.