# Science College – Physics Dept

This degree is offered by (  Al-Muthanna University) at the college of (Science). The typical length of study is four years. During these years, the students have to complete the following courses:

1. Electricity and Magnetism I

Course Description (The electrical field studied and it applications. The Ohm law and Kirshoff law apply in the electrical circuits)

• Electric charge , Electric force
• Coulomb law
• Electric field 1
• Electric field 2
• Electric Fluxes
• Gauss law
• Electrical Potential of point charges
• Potential of point charges
• Energy stored in charged system
• Capacitors
• Polarization
• Isolator material
• AC currents
• Ohm’s law
• Kirshoff s Law
1. Mechanics (First course, 10 weeks)
• Introduction,
• Units measuring,
• Vectors & Scalars
• Vector analysis,
• Vectors algebra 1
• Vectors algebra 2
• Motion, velocity, acceleration
• Newton’s law in linear motion
• Free falling
• Projectiles
• Force, Torque
• Work & energy
• Power, Stress
1. Fiber Optics
• Introduction
• Basic concepts
• Benefits of Fiber optics
• Total internal reflection
• The fiber optics
• Numerical aperture
• Attenuation in fiber optics
• Types of fiber optics
• Dispersion, calculations of dispersion
• Types of dispersion
• Design of fiber optics
• References of fiber optics
• Fiber Optics sensors
• Fiber optics couplers
• Reviews
1. Geometrical Optics ( First semester )

Course Description (Light principles and properties, light propagation laws, Fermat’s principle and optical length, propagation of light through plan surfaces, mirrors and lenses, the laws of images formation in lenses, defects of lenses )

• Light (definition, nature, propagation and properties)
• Light sources, intensity, vision process and the resources of optical ray
• Laws of geometrical optics, transmission law
• Reflection law, Refraction law
• Fermat’s principle, optical path, critical angle
• Total internal reflection, principle of reversibility
• Refraction through plane surface and prism, color dispersion
• Reflection through curved mirrors, formation of image at convex mirrors, mirror formula
• Mirrors and its types
• Image’s formation at concave and convex mirrors
• Lenses, formation of image at lenses, formation of image at concave and convex lenses
• Simple lenses formula, conjugate points and Newton’s relation
• Real image at converging lenses, deviation by lenses
• Refractive index of liquid by concave lenses, refraction through curved surfaces
• Equivalent focal length, lens aberration and its types
1. Astronomy

Course Description (The history of astronomy planetarium, the solar system in general and the sun and the moon, the planets and the origin of the solar system, the physical properties of star systems and variables astrocytes And galaxies)

• Astronomy in Mesopotamia and the Nile Valley and the Arab civilization
• Astronomy in the Renaissance
• Ball Planetarium Engineering
• Stellar constellations
• Zodiac and the zodiac
• Units of measurement astronomical
• The solar system
• Solar freckles and sunspots
• Lunar eclipse
• Astronomical studies of planets car
• Meteors and meteorites
• the moon
• Moon movements
• Lunar eclipse, and crescents
• Physical properties of the star
• The fates of stars
• Colors illuminating stars
• Mass and diameters of stars
• The age of stars
• Hertz Sbrank- Contact scheme
• Star Alnatronah
• black Stars
• Binary stars, types of stars
• Variable stars, supernovae
• Galaxy, the Milky Way, the galaxy mass
• Nebulae and the center between the stars
• Giant galaxies
• Dwarf galaxies
• Active galaxies
• Quasars and the universe
• Theories of the universe
• Life in the Universe
• Organic compounds in the universe
1. Atomic physics (First semester )

Course Description (Focusing on quantum behaviors of light and related concepts of atomic models as well as the special theory of relativity (

• Relativity, the principle of relativity, inertial system of coordinates
• Galilean transformation, Einstein’s special theory of relativity
• Lorentz transformation, Inverse Lorentz transformation
• Length contraction, Time dilation, examples
• Transformation of velocity ,change of mass with velocity, mass energy equivalent
• Examples of relativistic calculation
• Atomic view of electricity, electrical discharges
• Thomson’s measurements of q/m. Electron charge {millkan oil drop experiment
• Mass of the electron, mass spectroscopy
• Isotropic mass, The atomic view of radiation
• Waves of particles, Electricity and light, Electrodynamics. Thermal radiation, Emission and absorption of radiation, Black body radiation
• Wien and Rayleigh-Jens law
• Plank’s law (emission quantization), Stefan-Boltzmann ,law and Wien displacement law
• Interaction of radiation with matter. (photoelectric effect)
1. Analog electronics
• Introduction, energy bands, insulators, conductors, semiconductors, intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, PN-unction (diode) and its applications
• transistor, common emitter-d.c. analysis, characteristic curves, hybrid parameters, equivalent circuit, properties of the CE-amplifier
• transistor biasing (biasing aims; bias circuits), common collector circuit, common base circuit
• JFET, characteristic curves, JFET small signal parameters
• biasing circuits, JFET amplifier, applications of JFET
• MOSFET, D-MOSFET, E-MOSFET, characteristic curves, biasing circuits.
• Amplifiers, properties of an ideal voltage amplifier, multistage amplifier (gain; bandwidth)
• ways of coupling multistage amp. ( RC, transformer, and direct coupling), classes of voltage amp. (class A, B, AB, C)
• efficiency of amp., power distribution of amp., tuned amp.
• feedback, classification of amp’s., feedback configurations.
• Oscillators, classification of oscillators, sinusoidal oscillators
• non-sinusoidal oscillators
• Multivibrators, a stable multivibrator, monostable multivibrator, bistable multivibrator
• Differential and operational amplifiers
• Noise and distortion
1. Electromagnetism I

Course Description (Coulomb law, Gauss law, potential and energy, Laplace equation)

• Vector analysis
• Cylindrical and spherical coordinate system
• Divergence and its theory
• Coulomb law
• Electric field of group of charges
• Gauss law
• Potential of different charge configuration
• Work and energy
• Boundary conditions of conductor- dielectric
• polarization
• Conduction and convection currents
• Poison equation
• Laplace equation
• Solve problems
1. Laser Physics I
• Electromagnetic spectrum
• Absorption and emission
• Spontaneous and stimulated emission
• Laser idea
• Pumping schemes
• Two, three, and four laser levels
• Properties of laser beam
• Black body theory
• Einstein thermodynamic theory
• Stevan-Boltzman theory
• Threshold gain coefficient
• Laser resonators
• Laser modes
• Types of laser modes
• Pumping processes
1. Mathematics
• Function
• Combining of function
• Shifting
• Limits
• Continuity
• Trigonomettic function
• The concept of limit
• differentiation, and diff. rules.
• Derivative of trigonomatric function
• Chain rule ,Implicit diff
• Applications of derivative
• Extreme values
• Absolut max and absolut min
• Concave up concave down
• Inflection point
1. Computer (First semester)
• Computer parts, Programs
• Laptop + quiz
• memories+ quiz
• The operating systems + quiz
• Windows system+ quiz
• Compering between the operating system+ quiz
• Icons , files and folders+ quiz
• The control panel
• Help and some of fames cases
1. Computer (First semester)

Course Description (Introduction- user- preparing  slides - move items in slides – save files in many Formats  - the preparation of a multi-project – preparing presentations - Preparing Album)

• Identify of the program's interface and the basic ingredients
• Explain and apply the commands on the File tab+ quiz
• Explain and apply the commands on the Home tab+ quiz
• Explain and apply the commands on the Insert tab+ quiz
• Review past lectures
• Exercises
• Explain and apply the commands on the Design tab+ quiz
• Explain and apply the commands on the Transitions tab + quiz
• Explain and apply the commands on the Animations tab + quiz
• A review of the lectures for the examination of the second month
• Explain and apply the commands on the View tab
• Reviewing all lectures
• Exercises
1. Mathematical Physics I(First Semester)

Course Description (This course consists of Coordinate systems; limits, continuity, derivatives, and integral; Dirac delta. A part of the course treats complex variables; Fourier series and Fourier transforms as well as integral transforms such as Laplace and Gaussian transforms)

• Coordinate Systems(Orthogonal Curvilinear Coordinates-Cartesian Coordinates)
• Coordinate Systems(Cylindrical Polar Coordinates-Spherical Polar Coordinates-Application)
• Complex Variables I(Complex Numbers- Complex Plane- Functions of a Complex Variable)
• Complex Variables I(Limits, Continuity, Derivatives of Complex Numbers)
• Complex Variables II(Cauchy Theorem- Cauchy-Riemann Equations)
• Complex Variables II(Complex Integration-Cauchy Integral)
• Complex Variables III(Taylor Series-Laurent Series)
• Complex Variables III(Complex Taylor Series-Complex Laurent Series)
• Complex Variables III(Residue Theorem- Residue Formulae)
• Dirac δ-function(Defining by Integral Operations-Heaviside Unit Step Function)
• Fourier Series(Dirichlet conditions- Orthogonality-Fourier Coefficients)
• Fourier Series(Symmetry Considerations- Discontinuous Functions)
• Fourier Series(Integration and Differentiation-Complex Fourier Series)
• Integral Transforms(Fourier Transforms-Properties of Fourier transforms)
• Integral Transforms(Gaussian Transforms-Laplace Transforms)
1. Solid state Physics I (The Fourth)
• Introduction
• Crystal
• Crystal Structure
• Translation Vectors
• Unit Cell
• Area and Volume of Unit Cell
• Types of Unit Cell
• Crystal System
• Crystal Plane and their Indices
• Interplanar distance
• Wigner- Seitz Cell
• Chapter Two
• The bonding
• Types of bond
• Crystal lattice energy
• Crystal structures for some Crystals
• Chapter Three
• The diffraction
• The Bragg diffraction law
• Fourier Analysis
• Reciprocal Lattice
• diffraction in Reciprocal Lattice
• The Ewald sphere
• Brilloun zones
• Geometrical Structure Factor
• Lattice Dynamics
• Sound Waves
• Atomical Vibration in the lattice
• Vibrational modes of linear monoatomic lattice
• Velocities in wave motion
• Vibrational modes of diatomic linear lattice
• Chapter Five /Thermal properties of solids
• Heat Capacity of Solids
• Classical theory for Specified Heat
• Einstein theory for Specified Heat
• Phonon
• Density of state in one dimension
• Density of state in three dimension
• Debye Theory for Specified Heat 1
• Debye Theory for Specified Heat 2
• Thermal Conductivity
1. Medical physics ( First semester )

Course Description (Study of the physiology of human body w.r.t physical laws)

• Terminology and measurements
• Force on and in the body
• Heat and cold in medicine
• Pressure
• Physics of lungs and breathing
• Physics of cardiovascular system
• Electricity in human body
• Application of electricity and magnetism in medicine
• Sound in medicine
• Physics of hearing and ear
• Light in medicine
• Application of light and UV in medicine
1. Semiconductor Physics
• introduction
• Metals
• The Free-Electron Model
• Density of states in one dimension
• Density of states in 3D
• Band theory of solid (Energy band)
• origin of energy levels and energy band
• semiconductors
• Intrinsic semiconductors
• Extension to Semiconductors
• Concentration of particle and hole
• Doping semiconductors
• Donor and accepter
• Concentration of Donor and accepter
• p-n junction
• p-n-p junction and n-p-n junction
• Diode
• Transistor
1. Quantum Mechanics I 15 weeks
• Planck Law of Distribution
• Compton Effect, Photoelectric Effect
• Duality Property(Particle-Wave)
• Wave Function and Probability Density
• Orthonormality of Waves,
• Operators and Eigenvalue Equation
• Commutation of Operators,
• Hermitian Operators,
• Schrodinger Wave Equation,
• Applications: Free Particle,
• Particle in a Box(Potential Well),
• Linear Harmonic Oscillator,
• Solution of Schrodinger Wave Equation
• Calculation of Wave Functions for Linear Harmonic Oscillator.
1. Analytical Mechanics
• Vectors, Formal definitions and Rules, The scalar and vectoes products ,Moment of a force ,Triple products
• Change of Coordinates system, Derivative and Integration of a vector , Velocity and Acceleration in plane polar coordinates.
• Velocity and Acceleration in cylindrical and spherical coordinates
• Dynamics of a particle ,Newton`s first law. Inertial Reference system.
• Mass and Force . Newton`s second and third laws, Linear Momentum , Rectilinear Motion
• Vertical Motion in a Resisting Medium,linear Restoring force
• Harmonic motion, Damped Harmonic Motion
• Energy consideration in Harmonic Motion
• The work principle, Potential Energy function , Del operator
• Motion of a projectile in a uniform Gravitational field
• The Harmonic Oscillator in two and three dimensions
• Motion of charged particles in Electric and Magnetic fields
• Constrained Motion of a partical, The simple pendulum, The spherical pendulum
• Translation of the coordinate system, General motion of the coordinate system, Inertial forces
• Effects of the Earth`s Rotation, Static Effects (The Plumb Line), Dynamic Effects (Motion of a Projectile)
1. Nuclear Physics (First semester, 15 weeks)
• Introduction to basic concepts of nuclear physics
• Basic nuclear properties and nuclear terms
• Interactions of radiation with matter, interactions of heavy charged particles
• Interactions of beta particles and gamma radiation with matter, Interactions of neutrons with matter
• Interactions of gamma rays with matter
• nuclear binding and separation energies
• Stability of nuclei , Nuclear Forces and its characteristics
• Nuclear Models (liquid and shell model)
• Nuclear reactors
• Nuclear accelerators
• Peaceful used of nuclear energy
• Cosmic rays
• Nuclear detectors
• Elementary particles
1. Antenna (15- weeks)

Course Description (Antenna definition, radiation mechanism, antenna types and its applications, antenna measurements)

• Introduction and definition
• Antenna gain
• Effective length and effective aperture
• Directivity and efficiency
• Reciprocity
• Elementary antennas
• Vertical and horizontal antenna
• Microstrip antenna
• Arrays
• Microwave antenna
• Fractal antenna
• Antenna measurements
1. Professional safety - First Semester
• The purpose of the existence of programs for Occupational Safety and Health
• Evaluation of risks and design appropriate interventions for the risks
• The responsibility of the employers, the of responsibility workers
• The required steps for evaluating risks
• Types of possible hazards in general industry and methods of prevention
• Electricity risks, prevention of electrical accidents
• Fire and how to combat them, the reasons of fires
• Types of fires, fire-fighting ways
• Devices and equipment of the fire extinguishing, how to use fire extinguishers
• Safety and security requirements that must be met when preparing the plan for the prevention of fire
• Acoustic power protection program
• The risk of hand tools
• Some of the prevention methods from the possible risks of machinery and equipment
• Prevention of personal safety, protective clothing tasks
• Prevention of low temperatures
1. Human rights (First semester )
• The concept of human rights , human rights in ancient civilizations and heavenly laws
• human rights in medieval and modern
• human rights in thought and revolutions of modern legislation
• Contemporary international recognition of human rights
• Contemporary regional recognition of human rights
• international and regional recognition of human rights
• Exam the first month
• the emergence of nongovernmental organizations and their role in the fields of human rights
• human rights in the international and regional conventions
• human rights into national legislation
• Constitutional guarantees of human rights at the national level
• Judicial guarantees of human rights at the national level
• the role of the united nations
• the role of regional organizations
• Exam the second month
1. Matlab
• Matlab Defination,program frontpage
• Basic operations defination ,titling during programming
• Matlab orders,Matrices,Operation on Matrices
• Vectors Operation on vectors
• Complex numbers
• 2D graphs
• Chractristics additve on matlab graphs
• Graphs on separated windows,axps titling
• 3D graph
• equations solving
• Zero Crossing
• Find the roots of polynomial
• Derivation and integration
• Functions
• Area under curve calculating