Science College-Biology

This degree is offered by (  Al-Muthanna University) at the college of (Science). The typical length of study is four years. During these years, the students have to complete the following courses:

 

  1. Biochemistry : (Third Year Chemistry/ First semester)

Course Description (The course describes the macromolecules and micromolecules as subunits of them inside the cells. Cells are using them as source of energy or for protection.)

  • Cells, the Bio of Biochemistry; An introduction explains that Enzymatic chemical reactions inside cells to distinguish between Biochemistry and Organic chemistry. Similarities of cells from different organisms.
    • Cells; Plant and animal cells to recognize between cell wall and membranes. Water and buffers; information about the media and the physiological conditions inside the cells such as temperature and pH. Effect of pH on ionizations of functional groups in macromolecules in the cell.
  • Energy; where does energy come from? Sources of energy in plant cells and in human cells. Oxidative and reductive processes that release and require energy.
  • Carbohydrates; Mono saccharides as aldoses and Ketoses. Cyclization of saccharides; Stereoisomers, epimers and anomers. Monosaccharides as reducing agents.
  • Oligosaccharides; formation of disaccharides, reducing and non-reducing saccharides. Polysaccharides as homo and heteropolysaccharides. Differences between samples of glycans. Conjugated polysaccharides.
  • Amino acids; classification of amino acids. Stereoisomerism in amino acids. Uncommon amino acids. Amino acids can act as acids and bases.
  • Peptides; formation of peptides. Conjugated proteins. Levels of structure in proteins.
  • Proteins separation and purification; breaking cells, fractionation, and column chromatography. Electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing.    
  • Protein structure; the three-dimensional structure of proteins, stability of protein conformations. Classification of proteins based on their secondary structure.
  • Denaturation and renaturation of proteins; factors cause reversible and irreversible denaturation. Amino acids sequence in proteins.
  • Nucleotides and nucleosides; Pyrimidine and purine structures
  • DNA; the carrier of genetic information. DNA and RNA; replication and chemical structures.
  • DNA structure; the Watson–Crick structure features. DNA denaturation and renaturation. Gene expression; transcription and translation; central dogma of molecular biology.
  1. Clinical Analyses :

Course Description (This course teaches students the principles of pathology and most common tests related to human diseases diagnosis)

  • Introduction to pathology
  • Types of Inflammation
  • Roles of the Clinical Laboratories
  • Biosafety levels
  • Clinical laboratory specimens
  • Urine Tests
  • Blood Tests
  • Serum Tests (Serological Tests)
  • Stool Tests
  • Sputum Analysis
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Analysis
  • Seminal Fluid Analysis
  • Swab and wound culture
  • Allergy skin Tests
  • Midterm exam
  1. Clinical Analyses ( Experiment Assignments):
  • Introduction to clinical Analyses
  • General Urine Examination
  • Urine Culture
  • General Stool Examination
  • Stool Culture
  • Blood film preparation and examination
  • Blood culture
  • Blood lipids test
  • Blood sugar test
  • Blood urea and creatinine
  • Pregnancy test
  • Seminal fluid test
  • Serum enzyme test
  • Skin tests
  • Midterm exam
  1. Cell Biology :

Course Description (Life chemistry, Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cell, Cellular organelles, Essential bio reactions in the cell)

  • Introduction of the cell
  • Pro and Eukaryotic cell
  • Life Chemistry
  • Cell membrane
  • Transportation
  • Cytoplasm
  • Endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus
  • Mitochondria
  • Plastids
  • Nucleus
  • Operon
  • Interaction between cytoplasm and nucleus
  • Chromosomes
  • Mitosis and meiosis
  • Genetics
  1. Cell Biology ( Experiment Assignments)
  • Calibration of Microscope
  • Plant cell wall
  • Shape of Cell
  • Plastids
  • Golgi apparatus
  • Crystal types
  • Kill biosample and fixing
  • Mitosis
  • Preparation of cell for mitosis
  • Meiosis
  • Exam.
  • Gaint chromosome
  • Barr Body
  • Karyotype
  • Examples of genetic diseases
  1. Ecology – First

Course Description (Introduction to Ecology and its evolution , study the ecosystem , Biogeochemical Cycles, Ecological pyramids, ….etc )

  • Introduction
  • Ecological branches
  • Aquatic Ecology
  • Terrestrial Ecology
  • Ecosystem
  • Tolerance laws & Limiting factors
  • Abiotic Factors
  • First exam
  • Food chains
  • Productivity
  • Ecological pyramids
  • Community
  • Ecological Succession
  • Second exam
  1. Ecology (Lab. Experiment Assignments)
  • Introduction
  • Ecological factors and there equipment
  • Traps and nets
  • Visit meteorology station
  • Soil and its types
  • Measurement the soil humidity
  • Soil analysis
  • Determine the soil density
  • First exam
  • Ecosystem
  • Food Chains
  • Prey and Predator relationship
  • Second exam
  1. Immunology –

Course Description (This course teaches students to differentiate between active and passive immunity, cellular and humoral, antigen and antibody and to know some concepts on clinical immunology)

  • Introduction to Immunology as Science
  • Innate Immunity
  • Cells of the immune system
  • Complement System
  • Lymphatic organs
  • Antigens
  • Antibodies
  • Humoral Immune response
  • Cellular Immune response
  • Hypersensitivity
  • Immune Tolerance
  • Autoimmunity
  • Vaccination
  • Immunodeficiency
  • Midterm exam
  1. Immunology (Lab. Experiment Assignments)
  • Introduction to Immunology as practical Science
  • Laboratory Animals Handling
  • Routes of injection
  • Serum and Plasma
  • White Blood Cells
  • Total WBCs Count
  • Differential WBCs Count
  • Phagocytosis
  • Agglutination Test
  • Example for Agglutination
  • Precipitation Test
  • Example for Precipitation
  • ELISA Test
  • Biosensors
  • Midterm exam
  1. Organic chemistry (second Year Chemistry One semester)

Course Description (The course describes of aliphatic hydrocarbons, which include alkanes, alkenes and alkynes in terms of Nomenclature (IUPAC+ Common), Physical properties, preparation and reactions. Also study of Alkyl halides, Alcohols, Ethers, aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic acids, Esters/ Amides and derivatives others)

  • Introduction and General principles about organic chemistry / Atomic carbon Composition
  • Alkane/ cycloalkane / Nomenclature (IUPAC+ common), Physical properties, preparation and reactions
  • Alkene Nomenclature (IUPAC+ common), Physical properties, preparation and reactions
  • Dienes / reactions of carbon- carbons double
  • Alkyne Nomenclature (IUPAC+ common), Physical properties, preparation and reactions
  • Alkyl Halides Nomenclature (IUPAC+ common), Physical properties, preparation and reactions
  • Alcohols Nomenclature (IUPAC+ common), Physical properties, preparation and reactions
  • Ethers Nomenclature (IUPAC+ common), Physical properties, preparation and reactions
  • Ketones and Aldehyde Nomenclature (IUPAC+ common), Physical properties, preparation and reactions
  • Carboxylic acid Nomenclature (IUPAC+ common), Physical properties, preparation and reactions
  • Carboxylic acid derivatives / Nomenclature (IUPAC+ common), Physical properties, preparation and reactions
  • Esters/ amides Nomenclature (IUPAC+ common), Physical properties, preparation and reactions
  • Amines Nomenclature (IUPAC+ common), Physical properties, preparation and reactions
  1. Organic chemistry ( Experiment Assignments)
  • Introduction and Tools of chemical lab.
  • Determination of melting point
  • mixed melting point
  • Determination of boiling point
  • Recrystallization
  • Sublimation
  • Distillation method
  • Simple distillation
  • Fractional distillation
  • Steam distillation
  • Vacuum distillation
  • Extraction method
  • Chromatography techniques
  • Final exam
  1. Plants Groups –

Course Description (Study of alga classification, types of chloroplasts, vegetative characters, types of reproduction, methods of nutrition... etc)

  • Introduction
  • Division: Cyanophyta
  • Division :Euglenophyta
  • Division :Chrysophyta
  • Division: Phaeophyta
  • First exam
  • Division: Phaeophyta
  • Division: Rhodophyta
  • Bryophyta
  • Division: Ptreridophyta
  • Economic important of alga
  • Second exam
  1. Plants Groups ( Experiment Assignments)
  • Types of chloroplast and forms of alga
  • Study some genes 1
  • Study some genes 2
  • Study some genes 3
  • Study some genes 4
  • Study some genes 5
  • Study some genes 6
  • First exam
  • Study some genes 7
  • Study some genes 8
  • Study some genes 9
  • Study some genes 10
  1. Pathogenic Bacteria (15 week, two hours per week (theoretical part)15 week, four hours per week (practical part))

Course Description (An Outline History of Microbiology and Infection, Glossary, Normal Flora in Human, Some of the virulence factors in bacteria, the infection process, Some Medically Important Bacteria)

  • Introduction, An Outline History of Microbiology and Infection, Glossary.
  • Normal Flora in Human, Factors influence normal flora, Infection of the host by normal flora, Normal flora of different parts of the human body, Bacterial Pathogenicity.
  • Virulence Factors, Some of the virulence factors in bacteria, Bacterial Toxins.
  • The infection process, Entry into the Human Body, Sites of Entry.
  • Some Medically Important Bacteria: Staphylococcus: Cluster- Forming Gram +ve cocci,
  • Staphylococcus aureus: Morphology and culture characters, S. aureus infections, Biochemical characters, Diagnosis.
  • Streptococcus and Enterococcus: Classification of Streptococci,
  • Streptococcus Pyogenes: Enzymes & toxins, Pathogenicity, Lab Diagnosis,
  • Streptococcus agalactiae
  • Non- beta haemolytic Streptococci:
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae
  • Viridans Streptococci
  • Genus: Enterococcus (Fecal Streptococcus):-
  • Enterococcus Faecalis, Enterococcus faecuim
  • The Gram positive spore- forming rod: Bacillus anthracis:
  • General characters, Pathogenicity
  • Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus
  • Neisseria, Moraxella: (Gram –ve cocci): Neisseria meningitides: Pathogenicity, Lab diagnosis,
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae: Pathogenesis, Lab. Diagnosis.
  • Moraxella: Moraxella catarrhalis
  • Gram-Negative Rods (Enterobacteriaceae):
  • Escherichia coli, E.coli in human infections.
  • Klebsiella: The virulence factors of Klebsiella. Klebsiella Pneumoniae (K. aerogenes): Lab diagnosis
  • Salmonella: Morphology, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis,
  • Shigella: Morphology& Characteristics, Pathogenicity, Diagnosis. Genus: Proteus: Identification, Pathogenicity
  • Pseudomonas: Characteristics, Pathogenicity, Diagnosis.
  • Genus: Vibrio: Vibrio cholera, Pathogenesis, Lab Diagnosis,
  1. Pathogenic Bacteria ( Experiment Assignments)
  • Growth on agar plate.
  • Measurement of Cell Mass.
  • Media for Bacterial Growth.
  • Staining: simple staining,
  • Differential Staining,
  • Staining: simple staining,
  • Differential Staining,
  • Staphylococcus aureus:
  • diagnostic test
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae
  • diagnostic test
  • Bacillus anthracis:
  • diagnostic test
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae:
  • diagnostic test
  • Enterobacteriaceae:
  • Escherichia coli: Lab. diagnostic test
  • Klebsiella Pneumoniae:
  • diagnostic test.
  • Salmonella:
  • diagnostic test.
  • Shigella: Lab. diagnostic test.
  • Proteus: Lab. diagnostic test.
  • Pseudomonas:
  • diagnostic test.
  • Vibrio cholera:
  • diagnostic test.
  • Exam
  1. Parasitology ( 15 weeks)

Course Objective (Study the parasitology is very important as it plays an important role for humans , animals and all living organisms through which we know the most important parasites causing diseases and how to diagnose and treat and thus  prevent them)

  • Introduction of parasites
  • Introduction of Host and effect of parasites on hosts
  • Phylum Protozoa
  • Super class:- Sarcodina and ciliophora
  • Phylum Protozoa
  • Super class:- Mastigophora
  • Phylum Protozoa
  • Super class:- Sporozoa
  • Phylum: Platyhelminthes
  • Liver flukes, Intestinal flukes
  • Blood flukes
  • Cestoda
  • Phylum:- Aschelminthes 1
  • Phylum:- Aschelminthes 2
  • Phylum:- Acanthocephala
  • Phylum:- Arthropoda
  • Parasites and Immune
  • Final Exam
  1. Parasitology (Lab. Experiment Assignments)
  • Methods of sampling collection
  • Methods of examination sampling
  • Phylum Protozoa
  • Super class:- Sarcodina
  • Super class:- Ciliophora
  • Super class:- Mastigophora
  • Super class:- Sporozoa
  • Phylum: Platyhelminthes
  • Liver flukes
  • Intestinal flukes
  • Blood fluke
  • Phylum:- Aschelminthes
  • Phylum:- Acanthocephala
  • Medical Insect
  • Final Exam
  1. Plant anatomy

Course Description (Parts of plant internal structure for root, shoot & leaf & structural tissue for everyone & theories application on the growth of plants and recognizing how the plant increase in size by secondary growth)

  • Introduction of plant
  • Cell plant 1
  • Cell plant 2
  • Cell plant 3
  • Detials study
  • Collenchya&Sechlyma
  • Phloem
  • Xylem
  • Tissue& Secretion structures
  • paranchyma
  • Study of growth
  • Internal structure 1
  • Internal structure 2
  • Internal structure 3
  • Exam
  1. Plant anatomy ( Experiment Assignments)
  • Parts of plant
  • Cell wall formation
  • Living contains
  • Non living contains
  • Permanents tissue 1
  • Permanents tissue 2
  • Permanents tissue 3
  • Permanents tissue 4
  • Permanents tissue 5
  • Permanents tissue 6
  • Theories
  • Anatomy of root 1
  • Anatomy of root 2
  • Anatomy of root 3
  1. Computer 1 ( First year - First semester )
  • Computer parts, Programs
  • Laptop + quiz
  • memories+ quiz
  • The operating systems + quiz
  • Windows system+ quiz
  • Compering between the operating system+ quiz
  • Icons , files and folders+ quiz
  • The control panel
  • Help and some of fames cases
  1. Computer 2

Course Description (Introduction- user- preparing slides - move items in slides – save files in many Formats - the preparation of a multi-project – preparing presentations - Preparing Album)

  • Identify of the program's interface and the basic ingredients
  • Explain and apply the commands on the File tab+ quiz
  • Explain and apply the commands on the Home tab+ quiz
  • Explain and apply the commands on the Insert tab+ quiz
  • Review past lectures
  • Exercises
  • Explain and apply the commands on the Design tab+ quiz
  • Explain and apply the commands on the Transitions tab + quiz
  • Explain and apply the commands on the Animations tab + quiz
  • A review of the lectures for the examination of the second month
  • Explain and apply the commands on the View tab
  • Reviewing all lectures
  • Exercises
  1. Human rights (First semester )

Course Description (The concept of human rights , human rights in ancient civilizations and heavenly laws , human rights in medieval and modern , human rights in thought and revolutions of modern legislation , international and regional recognition of human rights , the emergence of nongovernmental organizations and their role in the fields of human rights , human rights in the international and regional conventions , human rights into national legislation , forms and generations of human rights , constitutional guarantees and judicial human rights , the role of the united nations and the organizations of regional in the fields of human rights )

  • The concept of human rights , human rights in ancient civilizations and heavenly laws
  • human rights in medieval and modern
  • human rights in thought and revolutions of modern legislation
  • Contemporary international recognition of human rights
  • Contemporary regional recognition of human rights 
  • international and regional recognition of human rights
  • Exam the first month
  • the emergence of nongovernmental organizations and their role in the fields of human rights
  • human rights in the international and regional conventions
  • human rights into national legislation
  • Constitutional guarantees of human rights at the national level
  • Judicial guarantees of human rights at the national level
  • the role of the united nations
  • the role of regional organizations
  • Exam the second month
  1. Professional safety – (First Semester)
  • The purpose of the existence of programs for Occupational Safety and Health
  • Evaluation of risks and design appropriate interventions for the risks
  • The responsibility of the employers, the of responsibility workers
  • The required steps for evaluating risks
  • Types of possible hazards in general industry and methods of prevention
  • Electricity risks, prevention of electrical accidents
  • Fire and how to combat them, the reasons of fires
  • Types of fires, fire-fighting ways
  • Devices and equipment of the fire extinguishing, how to use fire extinguishers
  • Safety and security requirements that must be met when preparing the plan for the prevention of fire
  • Acoustic power protection program
  • The risk of hand tools
  • Some of the prevention methods from the possible risks of machinery and equipment
  • Prevention of personal safety, protective clothing tasks
  • Prevention of low temperatures