Medical-Second Year

  1. Physiology - Practical (Year- Second, Semester- First, 30 Hours) this course includes the following items:
  • Introduction
  • Blood film
  • Osmotic fragility test
  • RBC count
  • Blood group, Hemoglobin
  • WBC count
  • WBC differential count
  • PCV
  • ESR
  • Capillary Hess test, Bleeding time, Clotting time
  • Simple muscle twitch (SMT)
  • Effect of temperature on SMT, Effect of strength of stimulus on SMT
  • Nerve conduction velocity, Fatigue, Tetanus
  • Effect of temperature on frog`s heart, Stannius ligature
  • Electrical stimulation of frog`s heart., Effect of drugs and ions
  1. Physiology - Practical (Year- Second, Semester- Second, 30 Hours) this course includes the following items:
  • introduction
  • Electrocardiography
  • Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
  • Visual test
  • Pulmonary function test
  • Measurement of blood pressure and pulse exam
  • Hearing test
  • Chest exam
  • Abdominal exam
  • Neurological exam
  • Exercise physiology
  • Period of apnea
  • Glucose tolerance test
  • Urine exam and  Pregnancy test
  • Exam
  1. Physiology - theoretical (Year- Second, Semester- First, 60 Hours) this course includes the following items:
  • Blood volume and plasma
  • Hemoglobin structure and types
  • Anemia
  • Blood Groups (ABO system)
  • Hemostasis and Platelets
  • Pathways of blood coagulation
  • Immunity and tissue typing
  • Renal circulation and glomerular filtration
  • Renal Clearance
  • Electrolytes reabsorption and secretion
  • 1-Sodium balance and diuretics effect
  • Acid-Base balance
  • Renal function test
  • Respiration: Mechanics of breathing
  • Lung Volumes and Capacities
  • Compliance of the lung, role of surfactant
  • Pulmonary and Alveolar ventilation
  • 2 -Transport of O2 and CO2 by the blood
  • Respiratory system acid – base regulation
  • Regulation of breathing: voluntary and involuntary control; ventilator responses to CO2 rise and O2 lack
  • Generation of membrane potential of nerve
  • Excitation and conduction
  • Orthorhombic and antidromic conduction – properties of mixed nerve
  • Muscles; Skeletal, Cardiac, Smooth
  • Neuromuscular junction, and the contractile response – muscle twitch
  • Energy source and metabolism
  • Strength – duration curve – cardiac muscle
  • Autonomic nervous system, anatomical consideration – sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
  • Higher autonomic centers and neurotransmitters in autonomic nervous systems
  • Types of autonomic innervation and reflex arc
  1. Physiology - theoretical l (Year- Second, Semester- Second, 60 Hours) this course includes the following items:
  • Functional design of cardiovascular structure of the heart and blood vessels.
  • Properties of cardiac muscle – auto- rhythmicity and conductivity
  • Properties of cardiac muscle – contractility and refractory characteristics. 4-Electrophysiology of the heart (ECG)
  • Mechanical events in cardiac cycle.
  • Heart sounds and murmurs
  • Cardiac output.
  • Work and efficiency of the heart
  • Vascular system – condition of flow and pressure.
  • Blood pressure and its regulation
  • Circulatory regulation, general nervous and local peripheral mechanisms.
  • Circulation through special regions; coronary, skeletal muscle, cerebral and skin circulation
  • Cardiovascular hemostasis, cardiac insufficiency, shock, and postural changes
  • Starling forces across capillary beds
  • Venous pressure and flow
  • General sensation, Tactile vibration and position senses, Pain sensation
  • Spinal cord transaction, Thalamus central representation of sensation
  • Reticular activating system, Motor cortex and motor pathway
  • Basal ganglia, 2-Cerebellum
  • Language, learning and memory
  • 1-Cerebrospinal fluid, Limbic system
  • Visual sensation, Audition (Hearing)
  • Vestibular function, 2-Gustation (Taste) 3-Olfaction (Smell)
  • General overview about the system
  • Hypothalamic hormones Posterior pituitary gland hormones Anterior pituitary gland hormones
  • Growth hormone
  • Thyroid gland hormones
  • Hypo and hyperthyroidism
  • Ca +2 metabolism, vitamin D Ca +2 metabolism, Parathyroid hormone
  • Pancreatic hormones (insulin) and (glucagon)
  • Diabetes Mellitus
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Effect of low oxygen pressure
  • on the body
  • Effect of acceleratory forces n body
  • Relationship of pressure to sea depth
  • Exam
  1. Biochemistry - theoretical (Year- Second, Semester- First, 30 Hours) this course includes the following items:
  • Energy cycles in nature, anabolism, catabolism
  • Regulation of metabolism
  • Digestion , absorption of poly-, di-, monosaccharide and disorders and membrane transport.
  • Glycolysis Cori cycle, and Krebs cycle.
  • Electron transport system (respiratory chain), oxidative phosphorylation and ATP synthesis.
  • Pentose phosphate shunt, pentose and NADPH synthesis, gluconeogenesis.
  • Glycogenesis and their regulation.
  • Digestion and absorption of triglycerides, cholesterol
  • Phospholipids, lipoprotein lipases, and synthesis of chylomicrons.
  • Beta oxidation of fatty acids, and energy production, propionate metabolism.
  • Synthesis of fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids, cholesterol, and fat storage.
  • Protein: digestion, absorption, transport.
  • Amino acids (glycogenic, ketogenic amino acids) degradation: catabolism of carbon skeleton
  • Urea cycle and ammonia metabolism
  • Amino acids biosynthesis and metabolic defects.
  • Exam
  1. Biochemistry - theoretical (Year- Second, Semester- Second, 30 Hours) this course includes the following items:
  • Action and regulatory control of hormones secretion
  • Protein and amino acid derived hormones secretion
  • Anterior and poster hormones
  • Steroid hormones , structure and synthesis
  • Sex hormones secretion, action, regulation and disorders
  • Abnormal metabolism of macromolecules and pathological changes in the function of liver and kidney
  • Abnormal metabolism of macromolecules and pathological changes in the function of liver and kidney
  • Different hormones with the clinical interpretation of laboratory finding
  • Uses of enzymes in clinical and prognosis, isoenzymes, their clinical significance
  • Uses of enzymes in clinical and prognosis, isoenzymes, their clinical significance
  • Porphyrin metabolism and disorders, haemogloinopathies
  • Haemoglobinpathies
  • Disorder of iron metabolism and significance of related laboratory tests
  • Cancer chemistry and tumor marker and their importance in clinical diagnosis and prognosis
  • Exam
  1. Molecular - theoretical (Year- Second, Semester- First, 15 Hours) this course includes the following items:
  • Basic structure, component of nucleic acid, polarity, backbone.
  • General features of DNA double helix , viral nucleic acids and their replication.
  • Different kinds of cellular RNA
  • Hybridization concept
  • General features of genetic code
  • Group presentation
  • Eukaryotic genes are interrupted genes
  • Group presentation
  • Exon shuffling and alternative splicing of RNA and their important
  • Definition of recombination DNA technology
  • Group presentation
  • Practical application and importance of recombinant DNA technology restriction enzymes: types, characteristics, nomenclature and action
  • Group presentation
  • Practical application and importance of recombinant DNA technology restriction enzymes: types, characteristics, nomenclature and action
  • Exam
  1. Molecular - theoretical (Year- Second, Semester- Second, 15 Hours) this course includes the following items:
  • Blotting techniques (southern, western, northern)
  • DNA sequencing methods
  • DNA probes: definition, synthesis and uses, DNA vectors
  • General concepts of PCR and its biomedical application
  • Restriction fragment polymorphism
  • Chromosome walking
  • Gene therapy and gene knockout
  • Prenatal diagnosis of some inherited diseases
  • Recombination, integration: definition, mechanism, types, Rec A, and other elements in mediation the processes
  • Transition, and medically important transposons ( R-plasmid, insertion seq., Tn3)
  • Immune diversity, class switching, and site specific recombination
  • RNA polymerase and their biological roles
  • Mechanism of transcription
  • Post-transcriptional modification
  • Enhance and promotors
  • Antibiotic action on transcription process
  • Operon models for regulation of gene
  • Expression (lac operon, tryptophan operon,….)
  • Control of translation of ribosomal proteins
  • Control of transcription in viruses
  • Exam
  1. Public Freedom - theoretical (Year- Second, Semester- First, 30 Hours)
  2. Public Freedom - theoretical (Year- Second, Semester- Second, 30 Hours
  3. Histology - theoretical (Year- Second, Semester- First, 30 Hours) this course includes the following items:
  • Introduction, tissue classification
  • Epithelium and gland
  • Connective tissue proper
  • Specialized connective tissue
  • Specialized connective tissue: bone and cartilage
  • Specialized connective tissue: bone
  • Specialized connective tissue: blood
  • Muscle tissue
  • Nervous tissue
  • Circulatory system
  • Lymphatic system
  • Integument
  • Respiratory system
  • Endocrine system
  • Exam
  1. Histology - theoretical (Year- Second, Semester- Second, 30 Hours) this course includes the following items:
  • Digestive system
  • Urinary system
  • Male reproductive
  • Female reproductive
  • Exam

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